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painting titles

  • Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks.
  • See also composition titles.

parking decks

  • Capitalize when using the full name of the parking deck <Students can park in the South Parking Deck, East Parking Deck or West Parking Deck. The east deck is adjacent to the recreation center.>. (UGA)


  • Note compound word.
  • Never use the percent sign, “%,” unless used in a graph or table.
  • Preceding numeral should be written in Arabic even if it is less than 10. (AP)

periodical titles

  • Capitalize, but do not italicize or enclose in quotation marks, titles of periodicals, including journals, magazines, newsletters and newspapers.
  • Do not capitalize the type of periodical (e.g., newspaper, journal, newsletter) unless it is part of its name <The New York Times, Southern Voice>.
  • If “the” is used as part of the complete name of the periodical, capitalize it <Three art professors co-authored an article for The International Journal of the Arts in Society. Flourish magazine is a publication of the College of the Arts.>. (AP) 

Permanent Collection of Art, Kennesaw State University: complete name of the art collection whose pieces are displayed across campus.

  • Capitalize “Permanent Collection of Art”; lowercase “permanent collection.”


  • Use periods; do not use an apostrophe in forming the plural.
  • In textual materials, use "doctorate" instead of "Ph.D." <He holds a doctorate in business administration.> (AP and KSU)
  • See also doctor.

phone number

  • See telephone number.

photograph titles

  • Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks.
  • See also composition titles.

play title

  • Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks. See also composition titles

plural of proper nouns ending in “y”

  • Unlike the plural form of improper nouns that end in “y,” the plural form of proper nouns that end in “y” retains the “y” and adds an “s” <The painting depicts two Virgin Marys.>. (NH)

plurals, descriptive

  • See possessives.

p.m., a.m.

  • Note lowercase and periods.
  • A space is inserted between the numeral and the a.m. or p.m. designation <4 p.m.>. (AP)

podcast (noun and verb)

  • Note compound word. (AP)

podcast titles

  • Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks the episode title and the name of the podcast.


poem titles

  • Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks.
  • See also composition titles


  • General rule is to add an apostrophe “s” when a word does not end in an “s.”
  • When a word ends in an “s,” insert an apostrophe after the ending “s.” This rule applies to inanimate objects as well <three weeks’ vacation; one day’s work>.
  • When a singular word that ends with an “s” becomes possessive, an apostrophe “s” is added, unless the following word begins with an “s” <The seamstress’ sewing needle fell to the floor. The seamstress’s cloth soon followed.>.

Joint or individual possession

    • Use a possessive form only after the last noun if there is joint ownership <Jane and John are hosting an event together; Jane and John’s event>.
    • Use possessive forms after all applicable nouns if ownership lies with each individual <Jane and John are hosting separate events; Jane’s and John’s events>.

Possessive pronouns that end in an “s” (i.e., ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs) take no apostrophe.

Descriptive plurals

    • In phrases such as “writers guide” and “teachers college,” the preceding plural noun doesn’t have ownership of the word that follows. Therefore, no apostrophe is used.
    • However, if the preceding plural noun does not end in an “s,” an apostrophe “s” is added <men’s chorus; children’s group>.

prepositions, capitalizing

  • See composition titles.


  • When directly preceding a name, “professor” is capitalized.
  • When standing alone or following a name, “professor” is lowercase.
  • When referring to specific professors, include their complete titles (e.g., assistant professor of visual arts, associate professor of music, adjunct professor of theatre and performance studies) upon first reference. (AP)
  • See also academic title.

*Note that “professor” is not an all-encompassing term for any person teaching in higher education. Reference the KSU directory for the official titles of faculty and staff members.

professorships, named

  • Always capitalized regardless of where the title appears in relation to the name, or whether a name is mentioned at all <Regents Professor Charles W. Hofer was the first Regents Professor at Kennesaw State University.>. (GSU)
  • See also academic title.

publication titles

  • For book titles, capitalize and enclose in quotation marks.
  • For journal, newspaper, magazine, newsletter or other publication titles, capitalize but do not enclose in quotation marks or use italics.
  • See also composition titles and periodical title.

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